Proyecto Eco Santuario Kiaruwa - Palawan

Kiaruwa (que significa "fuerza vital") es un ejemplo práctico de una Granja Agroforestal Regenerativa Biodiversa, resiliente y viable que regenera suelos y educa a los visitantes, mientras hace una contribución única a la comunidad local.

Nuestra misión:

Ser un santuario ecológico único para el clima., biodiversidad, y gente de Palawan.

Para regenerar la tierra en este sitio creando ecosistemas productivos y diversos..

Educar a los visitantes del santuario ecológico sobre los principios y filosofías implementados en este sitio..

Para convertirse en un destino de ecoturismo con opciones de alojamiento que complementen financieramente la producción agroforestal del sitio.

Establecer una relación acogedora y cooperativa con la comunidad local.

Proteger, conservar y restaurar esta increíble biodiversidad planetaria y ecosistemas prósperos

Para ayudar a las personas a construir relaciones y cocrear y facilitar la transformación de los sistemas de agricultura holística local mediante el enfoque en el alto porcentaje de pequeños agricultores

Para permitir a los agricultores cambiar del modelo basado en insumos al proceso basado, de lineal a cíclico, del modelo entrópico al sintrópico de la agricultura agroforestal regenerativa

Ser una fuerza motriz e inspiración en el proceso de curación de nuestro medio ambiente., reconexión espiritual y social con uno mismo, los demás y el medio ambiente

Estar comprometido a trabajar con Space (Estratificación) y tiempo (Sucesión & Ciclos de vida) en nuestra producción Paisajes

Para crear siempre condiciones propicias para la vida.

La isla de Palawan:

Palawan es un pedacito de cielo, que rebosa de fauna exótica, pintorescos pueblos de pescadores, y sitios del patrimonio mundial de la UNESCO. Gran parte de la isla sigue siendo tradicional y algunos la consideran subdesarrollada.. Abundante vida silvestre, montañas de la selva, y algunas playas de arena blanca atraen a muchos turistas, así como empresas internacionales que buscan oportunidades de desarrollo. Gran parte de la isla permanece cubierta por una densa jungla y está repleta de vida salvaje. La reserva de la biosfera de Palawan también alberga aproximadamente 57 grupos etnolingüísticos con 3 gente indígena: el Tagbanua, Palaw’an, y los Bataks.

Basado en la clasificación de la UICN, Tiene 105 fuera de 475 especies amenazadas en Filipinas. Del 105 especies amenazadas, 67 son endémicos de Filipinas, mientras 42 del 67 Philippine endemics are Palawan endemics. También alberga varios mamíferos marinos como las tortugas marinas., dugong, y tiburón ballena. Las características de los ecosistemas terrestres y de agua dulce también son diversas.. Se compone de bosque tropical lluvioso de viejo y segundo crecimiento, caliza kárstica, bosque sobre rocas ultramáficas, casuarinas y playa bosque. La variedad de terrenos exóticos de la isla incluye selvas tropicales, Exuberantes colinas verdes y llanuras junto a playas vírgenes. Es el hogar de muchas especies de animales de Palawan africanos y en peligro de extinción, incluidos los monos y loros de Palawan., osos y pavos reales, así como mangosta, osos hormigueros escamosos, puercoespín y ciervo de ratón, que están protegidos en la Reserva de Caza de Calauit y el Santuario de Vida Silvestre. Sus 2,000- km (1,243-mi) La costa es famosa por tener uno de los paisajes marinos más hermosos del mundo., con miles de kilómetros cuadrados de arrecifes de coral protegidos.

En 2007, National Geographic Traveler magazine rated Palawan the best island destination in East and Southeast Asia region, teniendo “paisajes marinos y paisajes naturales increíblemente hermosos. Uno de los más biodiversos (terrestre y marino) islas en las Filipinas. La isla ha tenido un estado de Reserva de la Biosfera desde principios de la década de 1990., mostrando interés local por la conservación y el desarrollo sostenible”. A partir de 2016, la isla principal de Palawan está clasificada como la “La isla más hermosa del mundo”

HISTORIA DEL SITIO DEL SANTUARIO ECO DE KIARUWA:

The 3Ha site where Kiaruwa is based has historically been used for rice production. En la región de Palawan, métodos tradicionales de pequeña escala, community minded rice growing has been heavily impacted by industrial growing techniques over the past 20-30 años. Incentives from the Philippines Government to promote the use of chemical fertilizer and weed suppression as well as the use of modified rice cultivars suited to such growing techniques resulted in wide scale conversion of farming land to this industrial method.

The perception amongst local farmers is now that this high chemical use production method is the only option available for the large-scale production required to remain financially viable. Many farmers in the area have since stopped production on their land as the financial input required for each crop outweighs production outputs. In total approximately 1.7Ha of the site has been used in this way with little utilization of upper sections up until approximately 5 years ago when new owners took over the site. These penultimate owners had an interest in permaculture-based land management principles and thus commenced planting a variety of productive trees and crops on the upper sections of the property. Some effort to convert the lower rice growing sections into a more diverse tree growing area is also evident.

CLIMA

Climate data obtained for the local area for consideration during this design are as follows:

  • Clima tropical húmedo (10grados del ecuador) consisting two main seasons, Mojado y seco
  • Temporada de lluvias entre mayo y septiembre
  • Temporada seca entre octubre y abril
  • 2000mm de precipitación anual
  • El mes más seco es enero, 47mm de lluvia
  • El mes más húmedo es octubre con 272 mm de lluvia
  • La temperatura media anual es 26 Grado Celsius
  • El mes más caluroso es el promedio de 29 grados Celsius de mayo
  • El mes más frío es el promedio de enero de 24 grados Celsius
  • Dos direcciones principales del viento, Hacia el nordeste (Amihan) y al suroeste (Habagat)

COMUNIDAD

The township of Abaroan Candelaria consists a population of approximately 3500 residencia local. Main employment opportunities include farming, construcción de carreteras y operador de furgonetas o triciclos. La infraestructura en la ciudad incluye una escuela pública, vivero de plantas, centro de evacuación de emergencia, y cancha de baloncesto al aire libre. Nearest medical center, supermercado, farm supply store and government office is in Roxas.

There is one main road through Abaroan Candelaria leading to Port Barton, un destino turístico popular, al norte de Roxas, an industrial hub, al sur. Although this district is not currently a tourist destination, many tourists pass through on the way to Port Barton making this a viable option for those seeking a more unique eco-tourism experience.

FORMACIÓN DE TIERRAS

This property has two raised land masses on the far east and western ends of the site with a wide, nivel, área baja entre ellos. The raised area to the east is approximately 0.8Ha in size and is surrounded by a lower section to the east and the past rice field to the west. Esta masa de tierra alberga el acceso a la carretera principal y el hogar existente.. The raised area to the west is approximately 0.3Ha in size and is the lower section of a much larger hillside that continues toward the west away from the property boundary. La amplia, nivelado, lower section previously used for rice production is approximately 1.7Ha in size. Productive rice fields boarder this lower section beyond the property boundary to the north and south.

STRUCTURES

Existing site structures include:

  • Main household consisting of 3 bedrooms, bathroom, kitchen, study, living area, verandah and small water tank for capturing roof runoff
  • Connection to mains electricity and water
  • One bamboo hut constructed by the current owner
  • Degrading timber fence surrounding the main household constructed by the previous owner
  • Dilapidated bamboo gazebo constructed by the previous owner
  • Graveled driveway
  • Wire fences around the property boundary
  • Hammock
  • Clay fire pit
  • Worn timber storage hut

ENERGY FLOWS

Agua

Drinking water for occupants on site is collected from a nearby shop that filters town water and distributes in 30L containers. The site currently has several available non potable water supplies including:

  • Town water supply
  • Roof capture and tank storage
  • Channel for low section flood irrigation

Overland stormwater flow paths from offsite move from north to south. The larger central low-lying area is subject to flooding in the wet season and will carry nutrients onto site from neighbouring rice fields to the north. The low-lying section to the east is subject to flooding from road runoff and has been seen to rise as much as two meters above static levels.

Electricity

Electricity is supplied by a connection to the main town power supply. Brown outs frequently occur, hasta 4-5 times a week. There is currently no redundancy on site for loss of electricity supply.

Nutrients

At present the most significant transfer of nutrients from off site to on site is conducted via importing of food for occupant consumption, which is then captured on site via deposits to the compost toilet or septic tank. Waste organic matter from food preparation is composted throughout the various existing garden beds. Carabao manure is infrequently collected at offsite locations for the preparation of new garden beds and planting areas on site. There is currently no import of compost, mulch or artificial fertilisers. Biomass from leaf litter, chop and drop species and the large volume of grass growing across the site is used as mulch around the existing trees and new garden beds.

BIODIVERSITY

Flora Existing site flora diversity includes a range of various canopy, shrub sized, and ground covering species. Productive species currently established on site include:

  • Calamansi
  • Mandarin
  • Mango
  • Anacardo
  • yaca
  • Piña
  • Cassava
  • Aguacate
  • Coconut
  • Plátano
  • Sweet potato
  • Papaya

In addition, there are several ornamental and native plants contributing to the diversity of the site, providing ecological functions in the form of habitat, pollen production, biomass growth and shading.

Fauna

Across the site there is an array of wild and domestic animal observed moving through out the site. Wild animals include:

  • Stalks
  • Squirrel
  • Mice
  • Gecko
  • Praying mantis
  • Moths
  • Butterfly
  • Ants
  • Termite
  • Earth worm
  • Mosquito
  • Abejas
  • Wasp

Domestic animals include:

  • Carabao
  • Chickens
  • Dog
  • Cats

The Regenerative Agroecosystem at Kiaruwa Eco Sanctuary:

Aims and Benefits:

Ecologically Regenerative (maintining and improving the quality of natural resources and the relationships of each ecosystem we work in)

Economically (potential for higher income as farmers work with higher diversity of crops and no need to buy outside inputs)

Socially (Inclusion of the poorest farmers and higher food security,higher incomes)

Cultural( Respectful and open to learn from traditional pre industrial revolution practices and culture)

Political and Ethical (transcendent moral values, fair share, non hierarchical, cooperative)

Creating Resilience against:

  • Typhoon and Natural Disasters
  • Climate Crisis
  • Extreme Weather
  • Food Insecurity
  • Dwindling Fresh Water SupplyPalawan is in the red zone for water stress in the future!

Our Integrated Strategy to improve health of the farmers and the local environment:

  • Native Timber Trees Narra, Ipil, Molave, Yakal, Akle, Dao Mahogany , etc.

(Few people know that there are ca. 40 superb quality hardwood species in the Philippines and even more sub species)

  • Native Fruit Trees more Typhoon resistantCalamansi , Pili Nut , Breadnut
  • Pureiria and Desmodium as Permanent Groundcover
  • Integration of Mainly Perennial Leaf Crops to increase access to nutritional diversity of local Farmers: Taro,Moringa,Sesbania,chicken spinach
  • Integration of “non rice” Starch/Staple Crops which need less water and fertilzer; Cassava, Maíz, Taro, Breadfruit, Sweet Potato , Plantain , Millets
  • Diverse Income Generation and Harvests all year round: Cacao,Black Pepper,Ginger Tumeric,Coconut,Rambutan,Durian,Mangosteen,Abaca, Hardwood Timber
  • Medicine and Spice; Ginger Tumeric Black Pepper, Chilli , Holy Basil
  • Perennial and other Vegetable crops: Green papaya, Green Mango, Green Jakfruit, Pumpkin, Chayote , etc..
  • Fiber; Native Abaca Banana
  • Legume to enrich simple rice focused diet further: Pigeon Pea and other legumes to combine with rice to get full protein
  • Permanent Groundcovers to reduce erosion, weeding and evaporation: Pureiria and Desmodium
  • Mushroom Production once the system is at a later stage!
  • Animal Integration where possible and desired: Ducks, Chicken, Abejas, Geese , Carabao
  • Sustainable Access to Firewood through managing certain species within the Agroecosystem as a coppice to obtain fire wood for cooking
  • Long Term Valuable Timber Crops for retirement fund and further generations which will enable multi generational care of the Agroecosystem
  • Education of the production of simple Biofertilizers, Tés de compost, Chop and Drop of Biomass Species, Management of Grass Strips to get sustainable organic fertilization of the Agroecosystem , Pruning techniques to manage shade, light requirements and density

Comparison of Yield in Philippines:

  • Agroforestry System: 49mt/ha/year of edible biomass
  • Paddy Rice Monocrop: 20mt/ha/year (3 crops) of edible biomass

Yield: per acre organic vegetables – 2700kg per month

Versus

Agroforestry 5000kg per Acre per Month, Fruits, Nuts, Herbs, Vegetables etc.

The Regenerative Agroeocystem Deisgn:

Main Crops of the System through succession:

Early stage mid.Stage:

Seasonal vegetables like Pumpkin,Rocket,Frijoles,Chilli,Eggplant, Patatas dulces, Taro , Plátano, Papaya, Ginger, Tumeric ,Piña , Cassava , Moringa , Sesbania,

Later Stage :

Cacao , Pili Nut , Coconut , Durian , Jakfruit , Breadfruit/nut ,Plátano , Abaca , Black Pepper , Ginger, Tumeric , Native Timber Species

Spacing Pattern:

Several options, the general pattern can be adapted to needs of density, focus of main crop, administración (mainly pruning in this case) time

Spacing mentioned for example: Cacao 3m * 4m means 3m meter spacing within the tree line and 4m between Cacao Tree lines

Main Long Term Crops:

Emergent or High Layer: Coconut, Pili Nut , Fruit or Nut Trees , Native Timber : 9m*9m or 9m*18m

Medium Layer: Banana/Plantain/Abaca 3m*3m , smaller fruit trees like native Calamantsi if wanted can be planted

Low Layer: Cacao : 3m * 3m , Black Pepper climbing onto Coconuts and other Fruit or Nut trees or support trees like Gliricidia Black Peeper kept at a height of 2-3m for easy harvesting , Ginger and Tumeric planted in available shaded gaps

Species per heactar of Main Crop: aproximadamente 900 Cacao and Banana approximately 150-200 Coconut or Fruit or Nut Trees (High or Emergent Layer)

These are approximate numbers as from our experience every site, client, context is different and the map doesn’t reflect the territory means reality on site so we have to be flexible, adapt to challenges and flow with it.

  • The tree lines are usually aligned East-West for maximum sun exposure.
  • Planting of the system us done when seasonal rains start as most sites don’t have irrigation available.

The importance of the Placenta:

We are birthing and co-creating a new forest organism and we need to but the Placenta in place to ensure proper future functioning. Species we will use to fulfil this function are:

Rocket, Radish , Chilli , Eggplant , Sunflower, Sesame, Hibiscus, Pigeon Pea , Crotolaria , Patatas dulces, Pumpkin, Maíz , Canavalia , Cassava , Piña , Papaya , Macaranga , Sesbania , Castor ,

The Grass Strip for fertiliziation:

In between the tree lines we will keep the current grass strip for use as mulch and also stage by stage introduce Pureria and Desmodium for permanent groundcover in most areas.

The Biomass Species for Chop and Drop Fertilzer and Mulch:

In most Tropical climates we find an endless amount of fast growing legume and non legume species that can be pruned heavily and afterwards organized around the trees as fertilizer and mulch. Some of the species we will be using here are:

Crotalaria, Sesbania Species , Macaranga , Mexican Sunflower , Gliricidia , Plátano , Golden Shower (Native) , Brazilian Fern Tree , Rainbow Eucalyptus(Native from Mindanao) , Cassia Nodosa (native) , Acacia Magnium (Native) , Melia Dubia , Gmelina Arborea , Fire Tree ,

Key Principles:

Estratificación: ¿Cómo se comportan las plantas en su entorno. Teniendo en cuenta la cantidad y calidad de la luz que las plantas necesitan para estar saludables.

sucesión natural: ¿Cómo se comportan las plantas a través del tiempo. ¿Cuánto tiempo que tardan en alcanzar su ciclo de vida completo o cuánto tiempo tarda hasta que alcanzan la madurez en su estrato.

acolchado: La importancia de mantener el suelo cubierto con materia orgánica y cómo plantar un sistema, mientras que mantener siempre el suelo cubierto.

Species Consortiums: How to combine plants in an Dynamic Agroforestry System: Explicación y ejemplificación sobre cómo diseñar y plantar las combinaciones de especies.. A dynamic agroforestry system permits a high diversity and high density of crops with different life cycles and different light requirements to grow together without much competition but in mutual cooperation. Todas las especies tienen un papel y una función.

administración: poda, estratificación, deshierbe selectivo y sincronización

Some parts of the new organism:

Preperation of soil done by local methods of using animal power as no machines are available here! Cheap and sustainable no fossil fuels used!

The Tree lines is covered with a very high amount of biomass to keep the soil covered and when the rains start we plant the species consortiums

Starting of a simple way to get species for the system, we collect often native species from the surrounding areas to be planted in the system here native Philippines Mahogany. Our experience shows planting them directly in the soil needs less water during the dry season and we don’t need to use plastic bag which often are a once off unsustainable

On another part of the land we are demonstrating how to retrofit an existing monoculture, this is a native lemon species called Calamantsi. Our concept is to introduce more diversity of plant in terms of Stratification and Lifecycles.

Another of our aims is to introduce the Silvopasture system idea into this area where Buffalos and Cows can graze ROTATIONALLY (to avoid typical overgrazing) in between productive Tree lines.

Another possible variation of the design to convert an abandoned rice field into what we call a “ Regenerative Chinampa Agroforestry System”. This could be an exiting experiment for future projects in Asia .

Layout Design Plan of the “Regenerative Chinampa Agroforestry System”.This is our adapt to diversify the hugh amount of monoculture rice fields again which often break up forest corridors and prevent wild life to move through different forest patches.The hugh amount of rice fields all over Asia has often caused Forest Ecosystem Fragmentation.