Projecte de santuari ecològic de Kiaruwa - Palawan

Kiaruwa (que significa "força de vida") és un exemple pràctic d’una granja agroforestal regenerativa viable i resistent que regenera sòls i educa els visitants, alhora que aporta una contribució única a la comunitat local.

La nostra missió:

Ser un santuari ecològic únic per al clima, biodiversitat, i gent de Palawan.

Regenerar la terra d’aquest lloc creant ecosistemes productius i diversos.

Educar els visitants del santuari ecològic sobre els principis i les filosofies que s'implementen en aquest lloc.

Per convertir-se en una destinació ecoturística amb opcions d’allotjament que complementen econòmicament la producció agroforestal del lloc.

Establir una relació cooperativa i acollidora amb la comunitat local

Protegir, conservar i restaurar aquesta increïble biodiversitat planetària i els seus pròpies ecosistemes

Ajudar la gent a crear relacions i a crear i facilitar la transformació de sistemes agrícoles holístics locals mitjançant la concentració en l’elevat percentatge de petits agricultors

Permetre que els agricultors puguin desviar-se del model basat en els inputs al procés basat en processos, de lineal a cíclic, del model entròpic al sintròpic de l'agricultura forestal regenerativa

Ser un motor i una inspiració en el procés de curació del nostre producte ecològic, reconnexió espiritual i social amb un mateix, els altres i el medi ambient

Estar compromès amb el treball amb l’Espai (estratificació) i el Temps (successió & Cicles de vida) a la nostra producció Paisatges

Crear sempre condicions propícies a la vida

L’illa de Palawan:

Palawan és una llesca de cel, que té una vida salvatge exòtica, pintorescos pobles de pescadors, i Patrimoni Mundial de la UNESCO. Bona part de l’illa continua sent tradicional i alguns la consideren poc desenvolupada. Fauna salvatge abundant, muntanyes de la selva, i algunes platges de sorra blanca atrauen molts turistes, així com empreses internacionals que busquen oportunitats de desenvolupament. Bona part de l'illa roman coberta de densa selva i terres amb vida salvatge. La reserva de la biosfera de Palawan també acull 57 grups etnolingüístics amb 3 pobles indígenes: el Tagbanua, Palaw’an, i els Bataks.

Basat en la classificació UICN, Té 105 fora de la 475 espècies amenaçades a Filipines. Del 105 espècies amenaçades, 67 són endèmics de Filipines, mentre 42 del 67 Philippine endemics are Palawan endemics. També acull diversos mamífers marins com les tortugues marines, dugong, i tauró balena. Les característiques dels ecosistemes terrestres i d’aigua dolça també són diverses. Està compost per una selva tropical tropical de velles i de segones, calcàries càrstiques, bosc sobre roques ultramafices, casuarines i bosc de platja. La varietat de terrenys exòtics de l'illa inclou les selves tropicals, exuberants turons i planes per platges prístines. És la llar de moltes espècies d'animals Palawan africans i en perill d'extinció, inclosos els micos i els lloros Palawan, gats d'ós i paons, així com mongosa, anteàters escamosos, cérvol i ratolí, que es troben protegits a la reserva de caça de Calauit i al Santuari de la vida salvatge. La seva 2,000- km (1,243-el meu) litoral és famós per tenir un dels paisatges marins més bonics del món, amb milers de quilòmetres quadrats d’esculls de corall protegits.

a 2007, National Geographic Traveler magazine rated Palawan the best island destination in East and Southeast Asia region, tenir “paisatges marins i paisatges naturals increïblement bells. Un dels més biodiverss (terrestres i marins) illes de les Filipines. L'illa va tenir un estatus de Reserva de la Biosfera des de principis dels anys 90, mostrant interès local per la conservació i el desenvolupament sostenible”. Com de 2016, l’illa principal de Palawan té una qualificació “Illa més bonica del món”

HISTORYRIA DEL LLOC DEL SANTUARI ECO DE KIARUWA:

The 3Ha site where Kiaruwa is based has historically been used for rice production. A la regió de Palawan, mètodes tradicionals de petita escala, community minded rice growing has been heavily impacted by industrial growing techniques over the past 20-30 anys. Incentives from the Philippines Government to promote the use of chemical fertilizer and weed suppression as well as the use of modified rice cultivars suited to such growing techniques resulted in wide scale conversion of farming land to this industrial method.

The perception amongst local farmers is now that this high chemical use production method is the only option available for the large-scale production required to remain financially viable. Many farmers in the area have since stopped production on their land as the financial input required for each crop outweighs production outputs. In total approximately 1.7Ha of the site has been used in this way with little utilization of upper sections up until approximately 5 years ago when new owners took over the site. These penultimate owners had an interest in permaculture-based land management principles and thus commenced planting a variety of productive trees and crops on the upper sections of the property. Some effort to convert the lower rice growing sections into a more diverse tree growing area is also evident.

CLIMA

Climate data obtained for the local area for consideration during this design are as follows:

  • Clima humit-tropical (10deg de l'equador) consisting two main seasons, humit i sec
  • Temporada humida entre maig i setembre
  • Estació seca entre octubre i abril
  • 2000mm de precipitacions anuals
  • El mes més sec és gener, 47mm de precipitacions
  • El mes més plujós és de 272 mm de pluja
  • La temperatura mitjana anual és de 26 Graus Celsius
  • El mes més calorós és la mitjana de 29 graus centígrads de maig
  • El mes més fresc és la mitjana de 24 graus centígrads de gener
  • Dues direccions principals del vent, Nord-est (Amihan) i sud-oest (Habagat)

COMUNITAT

The township of Abaroan Candelaria consists a population of approximately 3500 residència local. Main employment opportunities include farming, construcció de carreteres i operador de furgonetes o tricicles. Les infraestructures de la ciutat inclouen una escola pública, viver de plantes, centre d’evacuació d’emergència, i pista de bàsquet exterior. Nearest medical center, supermercat, farm supply store and government office is in Roxas.

There is one main road through Abaroan Candelaria leading to Port Barton, una destinació turística popular, al nord des de Roxas, an industrial hub, al sud. Although this district is not currently a tourist destination, many tourists pass through on the way to Port Barton making this a viable option for those seeking a more unique eco-tourism experience.

FORMACIÓ DEL SANDL

This property has two raised land masses on the far east and western ends of the site with a wide, nivell, zona baixa entre ells. The raised area to the east is approximately 0.8Ha in size and is surrounded by a lower section to the east and the past rice field to the west. Aquesta massa terrestre acull l'accés a la carretera principal i la llar existent. The raised area to the west is approximately 0.3Ha in size and is the lower section of a much larger hillside that continues toward the west away from the property boundary. L’ampli, anivellat, lower section previously used for rice production is approximately 1.7Ha in size. Productive rice fields boarder this lower section beyond the property boundary to the north and south.

STRUCTURES

Existing site structures include:

  • Main household consisting of 3 bedrooms, bathroom, kitchen, study, living area, verandah and small water tank for capturing roof runoff
  • Connection to mains electricity and water
  • One bamboo hut constructed by the current owner
  • Degrading timber fence surrounding the main household constructed by the previous owner
  • Dilapidated bamboo gazebo constructed by the previous owner
  • Graveled driveway
  • Wire fences around the property boundary
  • Hammock
  • Clay fire pit
  • Worn timber storage hut

ENERGY FLOWS

aigua

Drinking water for occupants on site is collected from a nearby shop that filters town water and distributes in 30L containers. The site currently has several available non potable water supplies including:

  • Town water supply
  • Roof capture and tank storage
  • Channel for low section flood irrigation

Overland stormwater flow paths from offsite move from north to south. The larger central low-lying area is subject to flooding in the wet season and will carry nutrients onto site from neighbouring rice fields to the north. The low-lying section to the east is subject to flooding from road runoff and has been seen to rise as much as two meters above static levels.

Electricity

Electricity is supplied by a connection to the main town power supply. Brown outs frequently occur, Fins a 4-5 times a week. There is currently no redundancy on site for loss of electricity supply.

Nutrients

At present the most significant transfer of nutrients from off site to on site is conducted via importing of food for occupant consumption, which is then captured on site via deposits to the compost toilet or septic tank. Waste organic matter from food preparation is composted throughout the various existing garden beds. Carabao manure is infrequently collected at offsite locations for the preparation of new garden beds and planting areas on site. There is currently no import of compost, mulch or artificial fertilisers. Biomass from leaf litter, chop and drop species and the large volume of grass growing across the site is used as mulch around the existing trees and new garden beds.

BIODIVERSITY

Flora Existing site flora diversity includes a range of various canopy, shrub sized, and ground covering species. Productive species currently established on site include:

  • Calamansi
  • Mandarin
  • Mango
  • anacard
  • yaca
  • pinya
  • Cassava
  • alvocat
  • Coconut
  • Plàtan
  • Sweet potato
  • Papaya

In addition, there are several ornamental and native plants contributing to the diversity of the site, providing ecological functions in the form of habitat, pollen production, biomass growth and shading.

Fauna

Across the site there is an array of wild and domestic animal observed moving through out the site. Wild animals include:

  • Stalks
  • Squirrel
  • Mice
  • Gecko
  • Praying mantis
  • Moths
  • Butterfly
  • Ants
  • Termite
  • Earth worm
  • Mosquito
  • Abelles
  • Wasp

Domestic animals include:

  • Carabao
  • Chickens
  • Dog
  • Cats

The Regenerative Agroecosystem at Kiaruwa Eco Sanctuary:

Aims and Benefits:

Ecologically Regenerative (maintining and improving the quality of natural resources and the relationships of each ecosystem we work in)

Economically (potential for higher income as farmers work with higher diversity of crops and no need to buy outside inputs)

Socially (Inclusion of the poorest farmers and higher food security,higher incomes)

Cultural( Respectful and open to learn from traditional pre industrial revolution practices and culture)

Political and Ethical (transcendent moral values, fair share, non hierarchical, cooperative)

Creating Resilience against:

  • Typhoon and Natural Disasters
  • Climate Crisis
  • Extreme Weather
  • Food Insecurity
  • Dwindling Fresh Water SupplyPalawan is in the red zone for water stress in the future!

Our Integrated Strategy to improve health of the farmers and the local environment:

  • Native Timber Trees Narra, Ipil, Molave, Yakal, Akle, Dao Mahogany , etc.

(Few people know that there are ca. 40 superb quality hardwood species in the Philippines and even more sub species)

  • Native Fruit Trees more Typhoon resistantCalamansi , Pili Nut , Breadnut
  • Pureiria and Desmodium as Permanent Groundcover
  • Integration of Mainly Perennial Leaf Crops to increase access to nutritional diversity of local Farmers: Taro,Moringa,Sesbania,chicken spinach
  • Integration of “non rice” Starch/Staple Crops which need less water and fertilzer; Cassava, blat de moro, Taro, Breadfruit, Sweet Potato , Plantain , Millets
  • Diverse Income Generation and Harvests all year round: Cacao,Black Pepper,Ginger Tumeric,Coconut,Rambutan,Durian,Mangosteen,Abaca, Hardwood Timber
  • Medicine and Spice; Ginger Tumeric Black Pepper, Chilli , Holy Basil
  • Perennial and other Vegetable crops: Green papaya, Green Mango, Green Jakfruit, Pumpkin, Chayote , etc..
  • Fiber; Native Abaca Banana
  • Legume to enrich simple rice focused diet further: Pigeon Pea and other legumes to combine with rice to get full protein
  • Permanent Groundcovers to reduce erosion, weeding and evaporation: Pureiria and Desmodium
  • Mushroom Production once the system is at a later stage!
  • Animal Integration where possible and desired: Ducks, Chicken, Abelles, Geese , Carabao
  • Sustainable Access to Firewood through managing certain species within the Agroecosystem as a coppice to obtain fire wood for cooking
  • Long Term Valuable Timber Crops for retirement fund and further generations which will enable multi generational care of the Agroecosystem
  • Education of the production of simple Biofertilizers, Compost Teas, Chop and Drop of Biomass Species, Management of Grass Strips to get sustainable organic fertilization of the Agroecosystem , Pruning techniques to manage shade, light requirements and density

Comparison of Yield in Philippines:

  • Agroforestry System: 49mt/ha/year of edible biomass
  • Paddy Rice Monocrop: 20mt/ha/year (3 crops) of edible biomass

Yield: per acre organic vegetables – 2700kg per month

Versus

Agroforestry 5000kg per Acre per Month, Fruits, Nuts, Herbs, Vegetables etc.

The Regenerative Agroeocystem Deisgn:

Main Crops of the System through succession:

Early stage mid.Stage:

Seasonal vegetables like Pumpkin,Rocket,Mongetes,Chilli,Eggplant, Patates dolces, Taro , Plàtan, Papaya, Ginger, Tumeric ,pinya , Cassava , Moringa , Sesbania,

Later Stage :

Cacao , Pili Nut , Coconut , Durian , Jakfruit , Breadfruit/nut ,Plàtan , Abaca , Black Pepper , Ginger, Tumeric , Native Timber Species

Spacing Pattern:

Several options, the general pattern can be adapted to needs of density, focus of main crop, administració (mainly pruning in this case) time

Spacing mentioned for example: Cacao 3m * 4m means 3m meter spacing within the tree line and 4m between Cacao Tree lines

Main Long Term Crops:

Emergent or High Layer: Coconut, Pili Nut , Fruit or Nut Trees , Native Timber : 9m*9m or 9m*18m

Medium Layer: Banana/Plantain/Abaca 3m*3m , smaller fruit trees like native Calamantsi if wanted can be planted

Low Layer: Cacao : 3m * 3m , Black Pepper climbing onto Coconuts and other Fruit or Nut trees or support trees like Gliricidia Black Peeper kept at a height of 2-3m for easy harvesting , Ginger and Tumeric planted in available shaded gaps

Species per heactar of Main Crop: aproximadament 900 Cacao and Banana approximately 150-200 Coconut or Fruit or Nut Trees (High or Emergent Layer)

These are approximate numbers as from our experience every site, client, context is different and the map doesn’t reflect the territory means reality on site so we have to be flexible, adapt to challenges and flow with it.

  • The tree lines are usually aligned East-West for maximum sun exposure.
  • Planting of the system us done when seasonal rains start as most sites don’t have irrigation available.

The importance of the Placenta:

We are birthing and co-creating a new forest organism and we need to but the Placenta in place to ensure proper future functioning. Species we will use to fulfil this function are:

Rocket, Radish , Chilli , Eggplant , Sunflower, Sesame, Hibiscus, Pigeon Pea , Crotolaria , Patates dolces, Pumpkin, blat de moro , Canavalia , Cassava , pinya , Papaya , Macaranga , Sesbania , Castor ,

The Grass Strip for fertiliziation:

In between the tree lines we will keep the current grass strip for use as mulch and also stage by stage introduce Pureria and Desmodium for permanent groundcover in most areas.

The Biomass Species for Chop and Drop Fertilzer and Mulch:

In most Tropical climates we find an endless amount of fast growing legume and non legume species that can be pruned heavily and afterwards organized around the trees as fertilizer and mulch. Some of the species we will be using here are:

Crotalaria, Sesbania Species , Macaranga , Mexican Sunflower , Gliricidia , Plàtan , Golden Shower (Native) , Brazilian Fern Tree , Rainbow Eucalyptus(Native from Mindanao) , Cassia Nodosa (native) , Acacia Magnium (Native) , Melia Dubia , Gmelina Arborea , Fire Tree ,

Key Principles:

estratificació: Com es comporten les plantes en el seu entorn. Tenint en compte la quantitat i qualitat de la llum que les plantes necessiten per estar saludables.

successió natural: Com es comporten les plantes a través del temps. Quant de temps que triguen a arribar al seu cicle de vida complet o quant de temps triga fins que aconsegueixen la maduresa en el seu estrat.

encoixinat: La importància de mantenir el sòl cobert amb matèria orgànica i com plantar un sistema, mentre que mantenir sempre el sòl cobert.

Species Consortiums: How to combine plants in an Dynamic Agroforestry System: explanation and exemplification on how to design and plant the species combinations. A dynamic agroforestry system permits a high diversity and high density of crops with different life cycles and different light requirements to grow together without much competition but in mutual cooperation. All species have a role and a function.

Management: pruning, stratification, selective weeding and synchronization

Some parts of the new organism:

Preperation of soil done by local methods of using animal power as no machines are available here! Cheap and sustainable no fossil fuels used!

The Tree lines is covered with a very high amount of biomass to keep the soil covered and when the rains start we plant the species consortiums

Starting of a simple way to get species for the system, we collect often native species from the surrounding areas to be planted in the system here native Philippines Mahogany. Our experience shows planting them directly in the soil needs less water during the dry season and we don’t need to use plastic bag which often are a once off unsustainable

On another part of the land we are demonstrating how to retrofit an existing monoculture, this is a native lemon species called Calamantsi. Our concept is to introduce more diversity of plant in terms of Stratification and Lifecycles.

Another of our aims is to introduce the Silvopasture system idea into this area where Buffalos and Cows can graze ROTATIONALLY (to avoid typical overgrazing) in between productive Tree lines.

Another possible variation of the design to convert an abandoned rice field into what we call a “ Regenerative Chinampa Agroforestry System”. This could be an exiting experiment for future projects in Asia .

Layout Design Plan of the “Regenerative Chinampa Agroforestry System”.This is our adapt to diversify the hugh amount of monoculture rice fields again which often break up forest corridors and prevent wild life to move through different forest patches.The hugh amount of rice fields all over Asia has often caused Forest Ecosystem Fragmentation.